Hangzhou is located along Southeast coast of China. It is the capital of Zhejiang Province, the center of politics, economy, science, education, and culture of the province. Hangzhou is a key national tourism city, historical city and vice provincial level city as confirmed by the State Council. Hangzhou is renowned as “Paradise on Earth”, “Cultural State”, “Home of Silk”, “Tea Capital”, “Town of Fish and Rice”
Eight districts, respectively Shangcheng, Xiacheng, Gongshu, Xihu, Jianggan, Binjiang, Xiaoshan, and Yuhang, and five counties (cities), respectively Fuyang, Lin’an, Jiande, Tonglu, and Chun’an, are under the governance of Hangzhou City. The total area of the city covers 16,596 Km2 with a population of 6,776,400 (December, 2008).
Hangzhou has enjoyed a history of over 2,200 years since the county administration was established in Qin Dynasty. It is one of the cradles of Huaxia (China) Civilization. As early as over 5,000 years ago, there were human beings multiplying and living in Hangzhou area, creating Liangzhu Culture known as the Dawn of Civilization. The archaeological discovery of Liangzhu ancient city ruin in 2007 pushed even earlier the recorded history of Hangzhou civilization. Hangzhou, one of the seven ancient capitals of China, was the capital of Wuyu State, of the Five-Dynasties and also the capital of the Southern Song Dynasty. In the 13th century, the Italian traveler Macro Polo admired Hangzhou as “the Most Splendid and Luxurious City in the World”. Hangzhou was called Qiantang in ancient time. In the ninth year of Kaihuang of Sui Dynasty (589), Hangzhou was founded to replace the original Qiantang County and the name of Hangzhou was recorded for the first time in history. The Wuyu State of the Five-Dynasties(907-978) founded capital in Hangzhou. In the third year of Jianyan of Southern Song Dynasty (1129), Emperor Gaozong moved southward to Hangzhou and upgraded it as the site of the prefectural city of Lin’an. In the eighth year of Shaoxing (1138 ), Lin’an was officially determined as the capital, which lasted more than 140 years. In the fi rst year of the Republic of China (1912), the original Qiantang County and Renhe County were merged into Hangzhou County. In the 16th year of the Republic of China (1927), Hangzhou County was dismantled and Hangzhou was founded as a city. It was on May 3, 1949 when Hang zhou wa s lib e rate d t hat Hangzhou began to write its new chapter of development in history.
Hangzhou has long been reputed as the Land of Fish and Rice, the Land of Silk and Paradise on the Earth with lengthwiseand sidewise rivers and densely scattered lakes. Benefiting from the geographic features, Hang zhou is blessed for it s agricultural production with rich myriad plants, forests, animals and birds. Man-cultivated plants for food and oil were grown around the city. In addition, there are over 260 breeds of economic plants such as fruit, tea, mulberry trees and fl owers. Hangzhou is renowned for raising mulberry and silkworm. Also noteworthy is the national famous tea known as the dragon well tea, which is originated here. A great variety of species grow in Hangzhou, including 10 national fi rst-level protected animals, 64 second-level protected animals;3 first-level protected and 18 secondlevel protected plants. Hangzhou has an agrarian area of 2.731 million Chinese acres, and 0.41 Chinese acre per capital. The forest covers an area of 1.08 million hectare, with a coverage rate 64.3 percent and the mineral resources include large- and middle-scale metal and nonmetal deposits. A kind of rare bloodstones in the world are producted in Changhua of Lin’an city, which are the art treasure in the collectstones and sealstones.
Under the jurisdiction of Hangzhou are the 8 districts of Shangcheng, Xiacheng, Jianggan, Gongshu, Xihu, Binjiang, Xiaoshan and Yuhang, the 3 county-level cities of Jiande, Fuyang and Lin’an, and t h e 2 co unt ie s of Tonglu and Chun’an. There are 198 villages and towns(districts), including 31 villages, 105 towns and 62 districts, with a total area of 16,596 square kilometers, including an area of 3,068 square kilometers in the urban.
Population & Employment
According to the 5‰ population sampling survey in 2008, the population of long-term residents reached 7.966 million, up by 1.32 percent over the previous; of which 5.5236 million in urban district, accounting for 69.34 percent of long-term residents. The city's population density is 480 people per square km; By the end of 2008, the total domicile population of Hangzhou was 6.7764 million. In the registered people, the agriculture population amounted to 3.3688 million and the non-agriculture population reached 3.4076 million. The birth rate of population was 9.09 per mill, the death rate was 6.32 per mill and the natural growth rate was 2.77 per mill.
The structure of Long-term population by the end of 2008(%)
2.Population Age Structure
According to the 5‰ sample survey of population in 2008, among all the residents, population of 0 to 14-yearold was 987,800, accounting for 12.4 percent of the total population, population of 15 to 64-year-old was 6.1099 million, accounting for 76.7 percent, persons aged 65 and over 868,300, accounting for 10.9 percent. Compared with the previous year, proportion of 0 to 14-year-old dropped by 0.62 percentage points, that of aged 65 and above had increased 0.09 percentage points.
3.Residents Life Expectancy
The population continues to extend life expectancy. In year 2008, the average life expectancy was 79.74 years old of residents in Hangzhou (77.44 years of men and 82.25 years of women), which was equivalent to the level of developed countries.
The cultural quality of the population has improved continually. In the year of 2008, population of 6-yearold and above of residents in Hangzhou with the tertiary education level and above accounted for 14.95 % of the population, 0.03 percentage points higher than that of the previous year. High school educated population accounts for 15.69%, 0.7 percentage points increased; junior secondary education population accounts for 33.64%, 0.92 percentage point increased. Compulsory education enrolment rate reached 100 percent, high school enrollment rate reached 98.7 percent, and higher education gross enrollment rate reached 51.9 percent.
The scale of employment in Hangzhou has expanded. By the end of 2008, there was a total of 5.6916 million employees in the city, 0.3607 million more than the previous year. There were 2.0135 million private and individual participators, more than 8,500 over the previous year. Registered urban unemployment rate was 3.02 percent in the end of the year.
Historical Cultural Heritage
The profound historical cultural heritage of Hangzhou promote innovation and mutual development by piecing together the Wu and Yue Civilization in Tang and Song Dynasty, the Religious heritage of Buddha and Taoism in Jin, Wei, Sui and Tang Dynasty, the continental and the imperial custom in South Song dynasty, as well as the Islamic and Christian believes to fuse into an enormous cultural integrity. The rainbow of West Lake, the Liangzhu ruin, the Wuyue heritage, South Song Civilization as well as those of Ming Dynasty, Qing Dynasty, and period during the Repubic of China contribute the merits of their unique culture, coping with the natural scenic beauty, the Chinese gardens, the religion, the architecture, the celebrities, the customs, the silk, the tea, and great variety of food creation, all put together to make up the delicacy, harmony and classic taste of Hangzhou Culture. The Great Cannel provides a rose bed for the plants, the water view, the local opera, and the Temple Fair custom to represent the openness and tolerance in the characteristic of Hangzhou so that the classic and the popular could both found their position. Especially the Qiantang River culture with rolling tide running forward mark the broad mind and heart of the Hangzhou People.
Hangzhou fostered a galaxy of culturally significant celebrities including philosophers such as Gong Zizhen and Zhang Taiyan; reat writers such as Bai Juyi, Lin Hejing, Fan Zhongyan, Chen Ruisheng, Luo Guanzhong, Shi Naian, Yu Dafu, Feng Zikai, Xiayan; Dramatists such as Li Yu and Hong Sheng; Artists suh as Litang, Liu Songnian, Ma Yuan, Xia Qi, Li Song, Wu Changshuo, Huang Binhong, Pan Tianshou, Huang Gongwang, Lin Fengmian, Gai Jiaotian; Scholars of Chinese such as Yu Quyuan and Ma Yifu; Scientists such as Shen Kuo, Bi Sheng, Li Zhizao, Zhu Kezhen, Mao Yisheng, Qian Xueseng; Education experts such as Lin Qi, Tao Xingzhi, Li Shutong; Scholars of medicine such as Wu Shangxian, Zhu Danxi, Wang Mengying; Great patriots such as Yue Fei, Yu Qian, and Zhang Cangshui.
Hangzhou has numerous special local products. As the “Capital of Silk”, its history of silk producing could be dated back to 4,700 years ago testified by the silk cloth unearthed from Liangzhu ruins. Later in the Tang Dynasty, the silk production had reached a distinctively high level, which was described in the poem of the great poet Bai Juyi as “Silk sleeves are decorated by fl ower textures which could be well compared to the real blossom. When pears flowers are bloom, it is the time to drink the light heart under the blue fl ags of the bar.” Presently, the silk is differentiated into fourteen categories of Chou, Duan, Jin, Fang, Zou, Lin etc. Those categories are fractionized into more than 200 subclasses, over 2,000 designs and colors with vivid pictures printed, fl owers and fi gures alike. The silk of Hangzhou has won immense national and international awards and was marketed into more than 100 countries and regions. Hangzhou is also renowned for the dragon-well tea which is listed as one of the top ten tea in China, the popular Dongpo Pork which is ruby in color and softly tender in taste, the fan of Wangxingji, the scissors of Zhangxiaoquan, the lace from Xiaoshan, the Jinshan tea from Yuhang, the honey products from Tonglu, the organic fi shhead from the Thousand Island Lake, the mountain walnuts from Linan, the Yellow wine typed Wujiapi of the brand Zhizhonghe, the Tofu peel from Fuyang. Numerable local specialties give out a rich fl avor of Hangzhou local taste.